Much of education today seems to focus on knowledge and content. However, there continues to be growing demands for abilities outcomes as the end result of an education, ie. ability to use knowledge. In a discussion with a colleague of mine, Phil Schanely from the Cedarville University Center for Teaching and Learning, he mentioned David Merrill’s First Principles of Instruction. First principles are the irreducible minimum for teaching. These are the elements that all educational theories seem to have in common. He suggests that all of these elements be connected to a real-world problem or task in order for learning to be efficient and effective.
1. Activation: leveraging previous experiences, new experiences, and structure
2. Demonstration: this refers to guided practice; show the learner how to solve the problem
3. Application: let the learner solve more problems with increasing complexity and continued feedback
4. Integration: the learner begins to own the new knowledge and “make it their own” by using it in everyday life.
In looking at many different types of teaching theories and strategies, I think you will see most of these elements. Which of these elements do you find the most challenging to incorporate? Do you incorporate all of these in your teaching? Test it out. You might be pleasantly surprised at the results.
In previous posts, I mentioned that feedback and practice are essential. Here are two quotes from Merrill’s article:
“Gardner (1999) and Perkins and Unger (1999) both emphasized the necessity of many opportunities for performance.”
“Feedback has long been recognized as the most important form of learner guidance.”
Merrill MD. First Principles of Instruction. ETR&D. 2002; 50(3);: 43-59. (He also recently published a book that you can find on Amazon.)